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Table 4 The comparison of every path’s standardized β values for both countries

From: Indonesian and Korean high school student’s disparities in science learning orientations: an approach to multi-group structural equation modeling

PathsStandardized β valuesz-score
IndonesiaKorea
Reproductive → Surface Approach.27**.40**3.41**
Constructivist → Deep Approach.61**.49**−1.51
Reproductive → Deep Approach.11**−.10**−4.24**
Constructivist → Surface Approach.08.03−0.65
Constructivist → Self-efficacy.22**.08*−2.65**
Deep Approach → Self-efficacy.35**.73**5.63**
Surface Approach → Self-efficacy−.10**−.041.55
  1. Notes: ** p-value < .01; * p-value < .05; no mark p > .05