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Table 3 The stages of engineering design for students suggested by science education researchers

From: Development of an engineering design process-based teaching and learning model for scientifically gifted students at the Science Education Institute for the Gifted in South Korea

MDE (2006)Hynes et al. (2011)Guerra et al. (2012)Kim et al. (2013)Heo (2014)
• Identify a need or a problem
• Research the need or problem
• Develop possible solutions
• Select the best possible solution
• Construct a prototype
• Test and evaluate the solution
• Communicate the solution
• Redesign
• Identify and define problems
• Research the need or problem
• Develop possible solutions
• Select the best possible solution
• Construct a prototype
• Test and evaluate the solution
• Communicate the solution
• Redesign
• Complete
• Identify the need
• Describe the need
• Characterize and analyze the system
• Generate concepts
• Select concept
• Embody the concept
• Test and evaluate the concept
• Refine the concept
• Finalize and share the design
• Identify need and problem
• Identify criteria and constraint
• Develop possible solutions
• Select the best solution
• Create a model
• Test and evaluate the solutions
• Communicate the solution
• Redesign and refine
• Confirmation of problems and constraints
• Generate and select the idea
• Research and development
• Making
• Evaluation
• Presentation and discussion
• Improvement of the design