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Table 1 Basic characteristics of a social constructivist teacher and of a traditional CHC teacher

From: Interaction of Vietnamese teachers with a social constructivism-based primary science curriculum in a framework appropriate for a Confucian heritage culture

Category Item Social constructivist teacher Traditional CHC teacher
1. Attitude a Being open-minded Tending to be closed-minded by teaching for “correct” answers
b Being friendly and equitable Maintaining a superior role
2. Activity a Encouraging students to engage in inquiry Encouraging students to do listening-reproducing activities
b Providing time and space for students to carry out self-regulated learning Imposing knowledge on students
c Promoting social interactions among students Adhering to one-way teacher-student interaction
  d Seeking elaboration of students’ initial responses Asking for single answers