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Table 2 Comparison of characteristics of problem solving, scientific inquiry, and engineering design

From: Development of an engineering design process-based teaching and learning model for scientifically gifted students at the Science Education Institute for the Gifted in South Korea

 Problem solvingScientific inquiryEngineering design
Meaning of problemDifference between current and desired situationNatural phenomena that cannot be explained by existing scientific knowledgeDeveloping products and systems to meet a specific need
Meaning of problem solvingRemove difference between current and desired situationExplaining the cause of the natural phenomenonCreating new products and systems
End productRemedial action solutionNew knowledgeNew products and systems
StageIdentify and select the problem, analyze the problem, generate possible solutions, select and plan the solution, implement the solution, evaluate the solutionProblem recognition, formulate a hypothesis, design inquiry, perform inquiry, interpret inquiry, formulate a conclusion,Define the problem, gather pertinent information, develop possible solutions, select the best solution, create prototype, test the prototype, documentation and presentation