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Table 1 The stages of engineering design for engineers suggested by engineering education researchers

From: Development of an engineering design process-based teaching and learning model for scientifically gifted students at the Science Education Institute for the Gifted in South Korea

Pahl and Beitz (1996)Cross (2000)Khandani (2005)Haik and Shahin (2011)Dym et al. (2013)Dieter and Schmidt (2013)Budynas and Nisbett (2015)
• Planning and Clarifying of the task
• Conceptual design
• Embodiment design
• Detail design
• Exploration
• Generation
• Evaluation
• Communication
• Define the problem
• Gather pertinent information
• Generate multiple solutions
• Analyze and select a solution
• Test and implement the solution
• Requirements
• Product concept
• Solution concept
• Embodiment design
• Detailed design
• Problem definition
• Conceptual design
• Preliminary design
• Detailed design
• Design communication
• Define problem
• Gather information
• Concept generation
• Evaluate concept
Product architecture
• Configuration design
• Parametric design
• Detail design
• Identification of need
• Definition of problem
• Synthesis
• Analysis and optimization
• Evaluation
• Presentation