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Table 3 Descriptive statistics for scales in the study (N = 1299)

From: Middle school student attitudes toward science, and their relationships with instructional practices: a survey of Chinese students’ preferred versus actual instruction

VariableSchool TypeGenderOverall
ABCFemaleMale α
N3935733336476521299
Attitude2.98 (.30)3.03 (.30)3.10 (.32)2.95 (.30)3.12 (.30)3.03 (.31).76
Actual
 Cooperative3.00 (.48)3.08 (.44)3.17 (.54)3.05 (.45)3.11 (.52)3.08 (.48).87
 Constructivist-oriented2.27 (.68)2.40 (.71)2.82 (.97)2.40 (.73)2.54 (.87)2.47 (.81).88
 Direct3.88 (.52)3.96 (.41)3.91 (.55)3.94 (.44)3.90 (.53)3.92 (.49).84
Preferred
 Cooperative3.68 (.55)3.80 (.45)3.90 (.51)3.78 (.44)3.80 (.55)3.79 (.50).88
 Constructivist-oriented3.14 (.90)3.39 (.81)3.70 (.73)3.35 (.79)3.44 (.89)3.39 (.85).90
 Direct4.07 (.50)4.14 (.37)4.15 (.51)4.14 (.40)4.11 (.50)4.12 (.45).86
Discrepancy
 Cooperative−0.68 (.44)−0.71 (.39)−0.73 (.46)−0.72 (.40)−0.69 (.45)− 0.71 (.42)
 Constructivist-oriented− 0.87 (.87)− 0.99 (.82)− 0.89 (.87)− 0.95 (.80)− 0.90 (.89)− 0.92 (.85)
 Direct− 0.19 (.27)− 0.18 (.24)− 0.24 (.32)−0.19 (.26)− 0.20 (.29)−0.20 (.27)
  1. Values shown as M (SD). Discrepancy is calculated as Actual-Preferred; negative scores indicate actual instruction was less than what students would prefer. α is Cronbach’s alpha
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