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Table 2 Model fit statistics for the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models (N = 1299)

From: Middle school student attitudes toward science, and their relationships with instructional practices: a survey of Chinese students’ preferred versus actual instruction

ModelkCFIRMSEA (C.I.)SRMRχ2dfAICcBIC
Model 1b: Unidimensional131.574.105 (.103, .106).10320,603.861354173,159173,807
Model 2b: First-Order Factors152.877.057 (.055, .058).0796911.201333159,519160,265
Model 3b: Second-Order Factors140.857.061 (.060, .062).0917807.021345160,385161,074
Model 4: bifactor unlinked169.752.081 (.080, .082).04912,538.341316165,191166,014
  1. “Linked” versions of models 1–3 have the same structure but include error covariance terms for the parallel Actual and Preferred items linked. k: number of parameters estimated
  2. Abbreviations: CFI Comparative fit index, RMSEA (CI) Root mean square error of approximation with 95% confidence interval in parentheses, SRMR Standardized root mean-square residual, AICc Corrected Akaike’s information criterion, BIC Bayesian information criterion
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