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Table 7 Criteria used in rADI to evaluate student scientific argumentation skills

From: Developing scientific argumentation strategies using revised argument-driven inquiry (rADI) in science classrooms in Thailand

Qualities of scientific argumentation skills Five elements of identifying scientific argumentation skills
Claima Warranta Evidence Counter argument Supportive argument
Excellent (4 points) Make a claim with Excellent warrants Give rational reasons to support a claim using 3 or more reasons Provide scientific evidence to support their claim using 3 or more examples Give a different claim and give credible reasons to support that claim using 3 or more reasons Rebut the counter-argument using 3 or more valid reasons
Good (3 points) Make a claim with Good warrants Give rational reasons to support a claim using 1–2 reasons Provide scientific evidence to support their claim using 1–2 examples Give a different claim and give credible reasons to support that claim using 1–2 reasons Rebut the counter-argument using 1–2 valid reasons
Fair (2 points) Make a claim with Fair warrants Give a reason based on emotions and feelings Provide scientific evidence to support their claim but the evidence comes from emotions and feelings Give a different claim but no reason to support that claim Attempts to rebut the counter argument without using feelings, but the reasoning is poor
Improve (1 point) Make a claim with no warrant
Or
Give no reason or giving a reason that does not relate to the claim
Or
No scientific evidence to support the claim
Or
Not giving any different claim, and no reason
Or
No attempt to rebut the counter argument
Or
Not making any claim Give no reason Provide evidence that does not support the claim. Give a different claim but give unreasonable reasons which may involve emotions and feelings Attempts to rebut the counter-argument based on emotions or feeling alone
  1. aThe elements “Claim” and “Warrant” are evaluated together, receiving up to 4 points for the pair
  2. Student’s argumentation performance in each socio-scientific issue or scenario is scored out of 16 points:
  3. 13–16 points = Excellent scientific argumentation skills
  4. 9–12 points = Good scientific argumentation skills
  5. 5–8 points = Fair scientific argumentation skills. The student should develop their skills further
  6. 1–4 points = Improvements much needed to develop scientific argumentation skills