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Table 2 Overview of the key features for an argument-driven inquiry instruction

From: Developing scientific argumentation strategies using revised argument-driven inquiry (rADI) in science classrooms in Thailand

Key features Overview
Well-structured tasks Instructor conducts teaching activities to encourage students to discuss and exchange ideas on scientific concepts and socio-scientific issues related to these concepts.
Explanation of argumentation process Instructor explains to students the principles of the scientific argumentation process and the elements of good argumentation, as well as the use of good and reliable information or evidence to support their claims. Instructor also demonstrates and exemplifies good arguments to promote the use of socio-scientific issues linked to knowledge in the content.
Use of group discussions Students learn together through group work processes to communicate and exchange their ideas. Group members consider counter-arguments before agreeing on a joint conclusion.
Argumentation-focused activities Students learn to cite credible academic sources to support their claims and recognize views, ideas or other claims that differ from their own claims. Students learn rational methods to demonstrate and persuade others on the validity of their claims.
Immediate feedback Immediate feedback is provided by the instructor regarding the quality of student arguments during activities in groups and as a class. The instructor asks timely questions that guide groups and students toward rational argumentation. Each student group also provides feedback to other groups’ written reports on the topic of argumentation, and the instructor about each report provides final feedback.
Safe and respectful learning atmosphere Instructor promotes a safe and respectful learning atmosphere for all students involved. Students feel safe to participate due to the use of neutral, unbiased questions that consider everyone’s perspectives fairly and without prejudice. Kindness from instructor empowers students to be confident to contribute to argumentation activities using counter-arguments and opposing perspectives. The students are encouraged to recognize peers’ viewpoints and understand the reasoning behind those who think differently from themselves.