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Table 1 Examples of categories, codes, and assertions

From: Professional changes of primary science teachers: experience on collaborative action research in Thailand

Categories Codes (Meaning) Assertions
Scientific conception SU (Sound understanding in the concept) The air moves from this [room] temperature area to another [hotter] temperature area.
MU (Misunderstanding in the concept) What was in the glass [that caused the paper to stick on the glass]? It was the pressure, wasn’t it? It was the pressure and the pressure sucked the water, so the paper wasn’t falling down.
Pedagogy TP (Teaching planning) [to design a hands-on activity about air concept]…I studied from the internet, the documents, and the TV.
QT (Question promoting thinking) In this experiment…where did the air come out after we light the candle?
Can you tell me about the difference of temperature between the start and the end areas of the bottle pipe?
Conditions of professional development TC (Teacher context) I really got ideas of how to teach from the TV…also I consulted the [senior] teachers if I couldn’t understand those resources.
TA (Teacher awareness of self-improvement) The project helped me to develop myself…I’m aware of teaching preparation…variety of activities [this caused] my students having better understandings in science.