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Table 5 The teaching activities proposed by the CHC teachers to apply to the designed curriculum

From: Interaction of Vietnamese teachers with a social constructivism-based primary science curriculum in a framework appropriate for a Confucian heritage culture

Phase Teaching activity
Number Repeated Items
Engagement i   Using a few key questions to reveal students’ prior knowledge and curiosity
ii   Staying open to students’ responses
Experience    PREDICTING
iii   Delivering the task and being sure that student groups know what to do and how to do the task
iv   Establishing time for group discussion
v   Observing and supervising groups while they do their group tasks
vi   Encouraging students to present answers, and compare and assess answers
vii i Staying open to students’ responses
   HANDS-ON
viii iii Delivering the task and being sure that student groups know what to do and how to do the task
ix iv Establishing time for group discussion
x v Observing and supervising groups while they do their group tasks
xi   Using open-ended elaborative questions to guide students
xii   Staying open-minded and friendly while interacting with students
Exchange xiii vi Encouraging students to present answers, and compare and assess answers
xiv   Stimulating groups to interact and argue with each other
xv xi Using open-ended elaborative questions to guide students in grasping deeper knowledge
xvi xii Staying open-minded and friendly while interacting with students
xvii   Choosing representative questions formulated by students/groups for students to discuss and answer
Follow-up xviii xi Providing open-ended sub-questions (if necessary) to guide students in answering/solving new questions/problems
xix   Giving compliments to individual students and groups who have achieved successful learning