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Table 3 Reports on the experimental lessons (in relation to Figure 1)

From: Interaction of Vietnamese teachers with a social constructivism-based primary science curriculum in a framework appropriate for a Confucian heritage culture

Report Achievements Shortcomings/Problems
Lesson 1 Students were active and excited in doing hands-on activities Students were passive in oral communications with the teacher, who transmitted knowledge rather than helping the students construct knowledge
Lesson 2 Students were active in cooperative tasks Knowledge was sometimes imposed on students by the teacher
Lesson 3 The teacher was effective in developing elaborative questions The one-way interaction from teacher to students was rather dominant
Lesson 4 The lesson was developed as designed and the students enjoyed the lesson The students were still passive and static in learning in the Exchange phase
Lesson 5 The students were enthusiastic in learning, especially in the Experience phase The teaching and learning in the Exchange phase did not lead to the active participation of the students
Lesson 6 The interaction between students became dominant in the lesson and the students were highly enthusiastic in learning The teacher was rather confused in dealing with some of the students’ answers
Lesson 7 The teacher was notably effective in creating elaborative questions to help the students construct knowledge Scientific argumentation in students’ discussions was still limited
Lesson 8 The students were engaged in the experiment and excited about learning Scientific argumentation in students’ discussions was still limited
Lesson 9 Teaching activities were arranged to correspond smoothly to each of the phases The students were not provided with enough guidance to be effective in answering some of the teacher’s questions when the students had to apply their knowledge to a new problem